Nitrogen containing bisphosphonates inhibit osteoclasts by targeting what enzyme or hormone?
farnesyl diphosphate synthase
tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease
so what is the correct grouping sir
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1995 Oct;(319):16-27.
I have a query. In your monograph you state that calculation of Positive or negative predictive values are calculated if one knows the prevalence of the disease in the background population. My understanding is that the calculation is based on Baysean Conditional probability. thus positive predictive value is the probability of a positive test when when disease is present/not present in the subject is [(prevalence) (sensitivity) ] / [(prevalence) (sensitivity) + (1-prevalence)(1-specificity)]Negative predictive value is the probable of a negative test if the disease is present/not present in an individual is [(1-(prevalence)(specificity)]/[(1-(prevalence)(specificity)+(prevalence)(1-sensitvity)]
Thromboembolism (PE & DVT)
This is an extremely important Topic.Needs multiple corrections and reinforcements.
A 50-year-old male sustains a closed head injury and closed femur fracture after falling off of a ladder. His GCS is currently 14, and he only speaks Spanish; he has several family members in the waiting room of the hospital. Which of the following is true regarding informed consent for fixation of his femur fracture?
Patient must be able to read the consent form
Patient must be able to sign the consent form
Patient does not need to be able to communicate in any manner to give his or her own informed consent
Patient must not be on any antidepressant medication prior to verbal or written informed consent
Patient should give verbal informed consent prior to narcotic administration if no written form is available
Consider rewording the question. GCS 14 suggests he could well be confused.
Acute Rheumatic Fever
what would be the type of arthritis in Rheumatic fever.....plz in details
Figure A is a radiograph taken after an open reduction and internal fixation of a periprosthetic distal femur fracture. With this type of hybrid locked plate fixation, what is the difference between screw A and screw B?
Screw A can assist in fracture reduction while screw B provides a fixed angle support
Screw A provides improved axial stiffness while screw B provides a fixed angle support
Screw A can be used to reduce the plate to bone while screw B can be used to lag fracture fragments together
Screw A provides a fixed angle support while screw B can be used to reduce the plate to the bone
Screw A can be used to lag fracture fragments together and screw B increases the plate bone frictional stability
Dr. Shawgi - screw A is a locking screw and can't bring the plate to bone (or vice versa). The core is larger and it is in the part of the combi-hole closest to the fracture, meaning it is a locking screw hole as well. Screw B is a non-locking screw, and you can even see the head sticking out of the plate a little bit. Take a look at the comments below for some more information as well.
If I am not missing something, in Q 25: I think Screw A used to reduce the plate to the bone, and screw B provides a fixed angle support !
Which of the following is true regarding osteoprotegerin (OPG)?
It is secreted by osteoclasts
It increases bone resorption
Binds to prostoglandin E2 before stimulating osteoclasts
Osteoprotegerin knock-out mice develop osteopetrosis
Binds to and sequesters RANKL
Thank you so much for a valuable educational resource!! I come across some typos / spelling errors / grammar issues now and then (not just in this topic) which I am sure are just administrative glitches - would you mind if I share? Not a language scholar just a student of Orthopedics so just want to contribute to this excellent resource if I can.Case in point: Should "Molecules that have shown to...." not read "Molecules that have been shown to..."
Sustained compression applied to a growth plate under experimental conditions has what effect?
Accelerated longitudinal growth
Decelerated longitudinal growth
Decelerated apposition growth
Decreased bending strength of the bone
A 27-year-old patient comes in for a new prescription for his below knee amputation prosthesis because it is not fitting properly. All of the following are complaints and examination findings consistent with a prosthetic foot that is placed too far inset EXCEPT:
Socket pain located medial and proximal
Increased knee extension during stance
Socket pain located lateral and distal
Dr. Shah - one of the best texts on the topic would be the AAOS Atlas book: http://www.aaos.org/store/product/?productid=8496816&ssopc=1.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011 Jul;19(7):420-9.
Antibiotic Classification & Mechanism
few mistakes about quinolones and floroquinolones1- only 1st generations are called quinolones ,2nd -4th are florinated quinolones and called floroquinolne2- 1st generations are only act on Gram negative Bacteria because it only have Topisomerase 23- 3rd and 4th generation floroquinolones have activity against both Topoisomerase 2 and 4 so they are broad spectrum against both G -and G + bacteria
yes dr saywan you absolutly correct nice question
Q96 AAOS foot and ankle 2006
Receptor activator of nuclear-factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is an important regulator of bone resorption. Which of the following cells is the MAJOR source of RANKL in bone remodelling?
The diagram would suggest and another question suggests that sclerostin is released by osteoocytes not osteoclasts as you have stated in the explanation
Foot Ankle Int. 2016 Sep 26; Epub 2016 Sep 26.
Foot Ankle Surg. 2016 Sep;22(3):158-63. Epub 2015 Jul 4.
A 25-year-old male sustained the fracture seen in Figure A and undergoes open reduction internal fixation of the injury. What type of plating technique is used for the ulna?
Dr. Shah - Id refer you to my comment immediately below yours for some additional information. Antiglide plates are commonly used in shear-type fractures, and you can find many references to this style of plating with certain medial malleolus fractures or when placing posterior plates on an oblique fibular fracture.Biomechanical Analysis of Stability of Posterior Antiglide Plating in Osteoporotic Pronation Abduction Ankle Fracture Model With Posterior Tibial Fragment.Hartwich K, Lorente Gomez A, Pyrc J, Gut R, Rammelt S, Grass RFoot Ankle Int. 2016 Sep 26. pii: 1071100716669359. doi: 10.1177/1071100716669359PMID: 27672062 (Link to Abstract)Comparison of modern locked plating and antiglide plating for fixation of osteoporotic distal fibular fractures.Switaj PJ, Wetzel RJ, Jain NP, Weatherford BM, Ren Y, Zhang LQ, Merk BRFoot Ankle Surg. 2016 Sep. pii: S1268-7731(15)00097-1. doi: 10.1016/j.fas.2015.06.007. 22. (3). :158-63PMID: 27502223 (Link to Abstract)Antiglide plating of vertical medial malleolus fractures provides stiffer initial fixation than bicortical or unicortical screw fixation.Wegner AM, Wolinsky PR, Robbins MA, Garcia TC, Maitra S, Amanatullah DFClin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2016 Jan. pii: S0268-0033(15)00266-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.10.005. 31. :29-32PMID: 26482240 (Link to Abstract)
Does the Hueter-Volkmann Law contradicts with Piezoelectric charges?