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Synovium
  • Function
    • mediates nutrient exchange between blood and joint fluid
  • Composition
    • vascularized connective tissue is porous and lacks basement membrane
    • cell types
      • type A cells  
        • derived from macrophages
        • non-fixed cells with antigen presenting ability
        • located in superficial layer
        • important in phagocytosis
      • type B cells  
        • fibroblast like cells
        • rich rough endoplasmic reticulum and dendritic processes that reach out to the joint surface
        • located at various depths, frequently in deeper layer
        • produce synovial fluid
          • produce hyaluronic acid, fibronectin, collagen
      • type C cells
        • intermediate cell type
        • unknown function and origin
        • may serve as multi-potent precursor to either type A or B synovial cells
Synovial Fluid
  • Function
    • lubricates articular cartilage and provides nourishment through diffusion
  • Origin
    • made from a ultrafiltrate of blood plasma
      • regulated by synovium
        • healthy knee contains ~2mL of synovial fluid
  • Consists of
    • hyaluronin
      • uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase enzyme critical for its synthesis
    • lubricin 
      • a key lubricating glycoprotein
    • proteinase
    • collagenases
    • prostaglandins
  • Biomechanics
    • synovial fluid exhibits non-Newtonian flow characteristics 
      •  the viscosity coefficient is not a constant
      • the fluid is not linearly viscous 
      • viscosity increases as the shear rate decreases
 

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Questions (1)

(OBQ06.246) A healthy human knee normally contains approximately 2 milliliters of synovial fluid. What cell produces synovial fluid? Review Topic

QID:257
1

Type A synovial cell

23%

(371/1585)

2

Type B synovial cell

66%

(1053/1585)

3

Type C synovial cell

6%

(94/1585)

4

Chondrocyte

4%

(57/1585)

5

Fibrochondrocyte

0%

(3/1585)

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 2

Synovial fluid is made by the fibroblast-like type B synovial cell. Type A synovial cells are important phagocytic cells. Recently a type C synovial cell has been identified and found to be an intermediate, non-functional cell, of unknown significance. Chondrocytes support the cartilage which immediately surrounds them. The fibrochondrocyte is the cell responsible for meniscal healing.

In their study, Schwarz and Hills describe the production of synovial fluid as the key function of the type B synoviocytes. In addition, they identified the role of proteolipids in boundary lubrication within synovial fluid and provide a comparison between the function of such proteolipids in the synovial fluid with their function in the lung. They hypothesize based on data presented in this study that exogenous administration of surface-active phospholipids may be beneficial in the treatment of arthritis.


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