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Synovium
  • Function
    • mediates nutrient exchange between blood and joint fluid
  • Composition
    • vascularized connective tissue is porous and lacks basement membrane
    • cell types
      • type A cells  
        • derived from macrophages
        • non-fixed cells with antigen presenting ability
        • located in superficial layer
        • important in phagocytosis
      • type B cells  
        • fibroblast like cells
        • rich rough endoplasmic reticulum and dendritic processes that reach out to the joint surface
        • located at various depths, frequently in deeper layer
        • produce synovial fluid
          • produce hyaluronic acid, fibronectin, collagen
      • type C cells
        • intermediate cell type
        • unknown function and origin
        • may serve as multi-potent precursor to either type A or B synovial cells
Synovial Fluid
  • Function
    • lubricates articular cartilage and provides nourishment through diffusion
  • Origin
    • made from a ultrafiltrate of blood plasma
      • regulated by synovium
        • healthy knee contains ~2mL of synovial fluid
  • Consists of
    • hyaluronin
      • uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase enzyme critical for its synthesis
    • lubricin 
      • a key lubricating glycoprotein
    • proteinase
    • collagenases
    • prostaglandins
  • Biomechanics
    • synovial fluid exhibits non-Newtonian flow characteristics 
      •  the viscosity coefficient is not a constant
      • the fluid is not linearly viscous 
      • viscosity increases as the shear rate decreases
 

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