Please confirm topic selection

Are you sure you want to trigger topic in your Anconeus AI algorithm?

Please confirm action

You are done for today with this topic.

Would you like to start learning session with this topic items scheduled for future?

Updated: Jul 6 2022

Types of Bone

Images bone.jpg bone.jpg bone histo.jpg
  • Introduction
    • Bone can be classified based on both anatomy and structure
      • anatomic
        • long bones
        • short bones
        • flat bones
        • sesamoid bones
        • irregular bones
      • structure
        • macroscopic level
          • cortical
          • cancellous
        • microscopic level
          • lamellar
          • woven bone
  • Anatomic classification
    • Long bones
      • e.g. femur, humerus, tibia, forearm bones
      • three anatomic regions in long bones
        • diaphysis
          • thick cortical bone surrounding a central canal of cancellous bone
          • outer region covered by periosteum
        • metaphysis
          • thin cortical bone surrounding loose trabecular bone
        • epiphysis
          • end of bone that forms the articular surface
          • contains the physis and the subchondral region under the articular cartilage
    • Flat bones
      • e.g. skull, pelvis, scapula
      • varied structure of either purely cortical bone or cortical bone with a thin central trabecular region
  • Macroscopic structural classification
    • Cortical
      • 80% of skeleton
      • metabolism
        • characterized by slow turnover rate and high Young's modulus
      • structure
        • made of packed osteons or Haversian systems
          • osteons
            • outer border defined by cement lines
          • vascular canals
            • contain arterioles, venules, capillaries, and nerves
            • if oriented along long axis of bone: Haversian canals
            • if oriented transversely to long axis of bone: Volkmann canals
          • interstitial lamellae
            • the region between osteons
    • Cancellous bone (spongy or trabecular bone)
      • metabolism
        • lower Young's modulus and more elastic
        • high turnover to remodel according to stress across the bone
      • structure
        • boney struts organized into a loose network
        • each strut is approximately 200 micrometers in diameter
        • 30-90% of bone is porous and contains bone marrow
        • increased porosity in osteoporosis
  • Microscopic structural classification
    • Woven bone
      • immature or pathologic bone that is woven and random and is not stress oriented
      • compared to lamellar bone, woven bone has:
        • more osteocytes per unit of volume
        • higher rate of turnover
      • weaker and more flexible than lamellar bone
    • Lamellar bone
      • secondary bone created by remodeling woven bone
      • organized and stress oriented
      • stronger and less flexible than woven bone
1 of 17
Private Note

Attach Treatment Poll
Treatment poll is required to gain more useful feedback from members.
Please enter Question Text
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options