Animated osteology - Clavicle Detailed lecture
MEDVIZZ - USMLE , PLAB , AMC , MCCQE , COMLEX , SLE , MRCP INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL EDUCATIONLive and online Training for all licensing Exams with Qbanks and study material .
Muscles of anterior compartment of arm - Animated Lecture
The anterior compartment contains three muscles; the biceps brachii, the brachialis and the coracobrachialis. These muscles are all innervated by the musculocutaneous nervewhich arises from the fifth, sixth and seventh cervical spinal nerves. The blood supply is from the brachial artery.
Brachial Plexus Advanced lecture - Usmle Fast Track mode ( not for beginners )
Brachial Plexus Advanced LectureThe brachial plexus and the subclavian artery traverse the posterior triangle of the neck and the interscalene triangleInterscalene triangle: formed by the 1st rib, scalenus anterior, and scalenus medius.Scalenus anticus syndrome: neurologic and/or vascular impairment of the upper limb due to narrowing of the interscalene triangle and consequent compression of the brachial plexus and subclavian arteryThe brachial plexus and the subclavian vessels are protected from the sharp ends of a fractured clavicle by the subclaviusThe clavicle is the most frequently fractured bone in the body.Subclavius: a muscle innervated by the ‘nerve to the subclavius’ which branches from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus.Use the mnemonic “Real Texans Drink Cold Beer” to remember the proximal-to-distal organization of the brachial plexus: Roots ? Trunks ? Divisions ? Cords ? Branches5 Roots: ventral rami of C5, C6, C7, C8, T13 Trunks:- Superior (upper) trunk (C5, C6)- Middle trunk (C7)- Inferior (lower) trunk (C8,T1)6 Divisions: an anterior and posterior division for each of the 3 trunks3 Cords (named according to their anatomic relationship to the axillary artery):- posterior cord ? axillary nerve, radial nerve- lateral cord ? musculocutaneous nerve, part of median nerve- medial cord ? ulnar nerve, part of median nerve5 terminal Branches: axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar nervesErb’s palsy (Waiter’s tip): lesion of the upper trunk (C5-C6) of the brachial plexus.Injury to roots C5 and C6 affects the deltoid, rotator cuff, elbow flexors, wrist and hand extensorsLatissimus dorsi is innervated by the middle subscapular (thoracodorsal) nerve, which is mostly derived from C7 ? not affected in Erb’s palsyBecause the deltoid and rotator cuff muscles are paralyzed due to injury of C5 and C6, the action of latissimus dorsi on the shoulder (extension, adduction, medial rotation) is unopposed ? the arm hangs by the side (adduction) and is internally (medially) rotatedKlumpke’s palsy: lesion of the lower trunk (C8-T1) of the brachial plexus.Affects the wrist flexors and the intrinsic muscles of the hand (thenar/hypothenar muscles, volar and dorsal interossei, and lumbricals)Injury of C8-T1 may also involve the sympathetic trunk/ganglia ? Horner’s syndrome:(1) Miosis(2) Anhidrosis(3) PtosisWinged Scapula: lesion of the long thoracic nerveSerratus anterior is innervated by the long thoracic nerve, formed by ventral rami of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7Actions of serratus anterior:- upward rotation of the scapula: serratus anterior is responsible for shoulder abduction above the horizontal plane — “C5, 6, 7 points to heaven”- protraction and depression of the scapulaLesion of the long thoracic nerve (eg, status post mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection) ? paralysis of serratus anterior ?(1) inability to raise the arms above the horizontal (90°)(2) medial winging of the scapula (inferior scapular angle is rotated medially and lifted superiorly and away from the posterior thoracic wall), which may be accentuated by having the patient push against a wall with flat palmsCompare:Lesion of accessory nerve (CN 11) (eg, radical neck dissection) ? paralysis of trapezius ?(1) drooping of the shoulder(2) lateral scapular winging (inferior scapular angle is rotated laterally and lifted superiorly and away from the posterior thoracic wall), which may be accentuated during resisted abduction.
ULNAR NERVE ANATOMY DETAILED LECTURE - Dr G Bhanu Prakash Usmle Lectures
MEDIAN NERVE - Gross Anatomy Detailed Lecture
MEDIAN NERVE GROSS ANATOMY DETAILED LECTUREMedian nerveInnervationMotorsuperficial volar forearm group Pronator teres Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longusintermediate group Flexor digitorum superficialisdeep group Flexor digitorum profundus (lateral) Flexor pollicis longus Pronator quadratushand 1st and 2nd lumbricals Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor pollicis brevisOriginBrachial plexus C5-T1 rootsmedial and lateral cordsCourseAnterior compartment of armanterior compartment (anteromedial to humerus)runs with brachial artery (lateral in upper arm / medial at elbow)no branches in the armForearmenters the forearm between the pronator teres and biceps tendontravels between flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)then emerges between the FDS and flexor pollicis longus (FPL)Handthe nerve then enters the hand via the carpal tunnel, along with the tendons of the FDS, FDP and FPLTerminal branchesanterior interosseous branch (AIN)innervates the deep volar compartment of forearm except the ulnar half of the FDPpalmar cutaneous branch supplies sensory innervation to lateral palmrecurrent branch (to thenar compartment)digital cutaneous branchessupply the radial 3 1/2 digits (palmar)can also supply the index, long, and ring fingers dorsally
Radial Nerve anatomy - Origin , Course , Relations , Branches ( Fast Track mode Not for beginners )
Motor----------radial nerve proper triceps anconeus ECRL ECRB brachioradialis PIN ED supinator EDM ECU APL EPL EPB EIPSensory-------------posterior cutaneous nerve armposterior cutaneous nerve - forearmsuperficial branch radial nervedorsal digital branchOrigin----------Radial nerve originates from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5-T1)behind axillary arteryCourse-----------Posterior wall axillacourses on the posterior wall of the axilla (on subscapularis, latissimus dorsi, teres major)3 Branches in axillaposterior cutaneous nerve of the armbranch to long head of tricepsbranch to medial head of tricepsTriangular intervalit then runs through the triangular interval with profunda brachii artery in posterior compartment between long head of triceps and humerusSpiral groovenext it courses through the spiral groove between lateral and medial heads of tricepsbottom line = Safe zone posteriorly of 10 cm distal to the lateral acromion and 10 cm proximal to lateral epicondylebranches in spiral grooveinferior lateral cutaneous nerve of the armposterior cutaneous nerve of the forearmbranch to lateral head of tricepsbranch to medial head of triceps and anconeusLateral intermuscular septanext it passes through the lateral intermuscular septa never less than 7.5 cm above the distal articular surface. runs between brachialis and brachioradialis (anterior to lateral epicondyle)gives branches to supply: lateral brachialis, brachioradialis, ECRL, ECRBTerminal brancheslevel of radiohumeral joint line, divides into terminal branches superficial sensory branch Deep branch/PIN ECRB branch
Which nerve innervates the rectus femoris muscle?
good point, question is being changed
Isn't this actually adductor longus muscle instead of sartorius? I feel this is upper thigh level. The muscle labeled in illustration as medialis is morel likely sartorius, as it covers the femoral vessels. Then the tumor is in adductus longus muscle (innervated by obturator never). The muscle labeled as adductus longus is more likely adductor brevis.At upper thigh level , the sartorius should be either lateral or anterior to the femoral vessles, cannot be this much medial to the femoral vessels, unless at the distal thigh level. However, based on the size of the rectus and semitendinosus, this shouldn't be the distal thigh level.
Anatomy Of The Flexor Digitorum Profundus Muscle - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Educational video describing the anatomy of the flexor digitorum profundus muscle.
Topographical relations between the Gantzer's muscle and neurovascular structures.Yang K, Jung SJ, Lee H, Choi IJ, Lee JHSurg Radiol Anat. 2017 Mar 13. doi: 10.1007/s00276-016-1803-x. pii: 10.1007/s00276-016-1803-xPMID: 28289869 (Link to Abstract)A combined variation of Palmaris longus and Flexor digitorum superficialis: Case report and review of literature.Bernardes A, Melo C, Pinheiro SMorphologie. 2016 Dec. pii: S1286-0115(16)30002-9. doi: 10.1016/j.morpho.2016.03.002. 100. (331). :245-249PMID: 27265750 (Link to Abstract)Intermuscular aponeuroses between the flexor muscles of the forearm and their relationships with the ulnar nerve.Won HS, Liu HF, Kim JH, Kwak DS, Chung IH, Kim IBSurg Radiol Anat. 2016 Dec. doi: 10.1007/s00276-016-1695-9. pii: 10.1007/s00276-016-1695-9. 38. (10). :1183-1189PMID: 27172919 (Link to Abstract)
"MRI shows a tumor in the sartorius muscle" is your statement.Without labelling the muscles and without seeing MRI cuts at different levels, how can we know that that muscle is indeed sartorius? In your image it shows a tumor in the medial (adductor) compartment.If a different MRI cut more proximally would have been shown, it would've appeared as if arising from the anterior compartment.We don't know at what level this MRI cut has been taken.
Compartments of leg
got it thank you!
Dr. Alfitury - the topic above lists the contents of the compartments, not what innervates them. The tibial nerve is located within the deep posterior compartment.
Superficial posterior compartment nerve supply is Tibial nerve and not sural nerve. please correct.thank you
does not split at the distal thigh but just above mid thigh, and tibial nerve supply all the hamstring muscles except the short head of the biceps femoris.
the sciatic nerve dived at the apex of the popliteal fossa at the level of the just below the gluteal fold (posterior thigh) to common p and tibial never!why you call it peroneal division?
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011 Nov;93(11):1471-4.
Bone Joint J. 2015 Sep;97-B(9):1204-13.
Rhomboid Minor and Major
2017 ABOS Part I 215-Day Study Plan
can orthopaedic residents other than USA have access to these study plans?
Learn to Draw Brachial Plexus
how to memorize and draw brachial plexus:
Excellent way to remember