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Updated: Jun 15 2021

Bone Matrix

Images I collagen_moved.jpg
  • composition of bone
    • Bone is made up of
      • organic component
        • 40% of dry weight
      • inorganic component
        • 60% of dry weight
  • Organic component
    • Components include
      • collagen
        • 90% of organic component
        • primarily type I collagen
        • provides tensile strength
        • it is a triple helix composed of one alpha-2 and two alpha-1 chains
      • proteoglycans
        • responsible for compressive strength
        • inhibit mineralization
        • composed of glycosaminoglycan-protein complexes
      • matrix proteins
        • includes noncollagenous proteins
        • function to promote mineralization and bone formation
          • three main types of proteins involved in bone matrix
            • osteocalcin
              • most abundant non-collagenous protein in the matrix (10%-20% of total)
                • produced by mature osteoblasts
              • function
                • promotes mineralization and formation of bone
                  • directly involved in regulation of bone density
                  • attracts osteoclasts
              • signaling
                • stimulated by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3
                • inhibited by PTH
              • clinical application
                • marker of bone turnover
                  • can be measured in urine or serum
            • osteonectin
              • secreted by platelets and osteoblasts
              • function
                • believed to have a role in regulating calcium or organizing mineral in matrix
            • osteopontin
              • function
                • cell-binding protein
      • cytokine and growth factors
        • small amounts present in matrix
        • aid in bone cell differentiation, activation, growth, and turnover
        • include
          • IL-1, IL-6, IGF, TGF-beta, BMPs
  • Inorganic component
    • Components include
      • calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
        • provides compressive strength
      • osteocalcium phosphate (brushite)
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