CephalothinCefazolin (Ancef, Kefzol) CephapririnCephalexin (Keflex)other
Inhibit 30s SubunitAminoglycosides (gentamicin)TetracyclinesInhibit 50s SubunitMacrolidesChloramphenicolClindamycinLinezolid Streptogramins
Strep. pyogenes (Grp.A)**Step. agalactiae (Grp.B)**C. perfringens(Bacilli)**
Above + ↑ Gram-negative:E. faecalis**E. Coli**
MRSA**PCN/Ceph allegies**S. aureusS. epidermidis
S aureus**S epidermis**E.Coli**Klebsiella**
RickettsiaMycoplasmaSpirochetes (Lyme's disease)
Coumadin Interaction (cytochrome P450)
Bacteroides fragilisS aureusCoagulase-negative Staph & StrepExcellent Bone Penetration
Pseudomembranous colitisHypersensitivity Reaction
PhototoxicityAchilles tendon ruptureImpaired fracture healing
ThrombocytopeniaAvoid in third trimester of pregnancy
Bacillus anthracisBacillus cereusClostridium tetaniClostridium botulinumClostridium perfringensClostridium difficile
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Figures A through C are the radiographs and CT scan of a 33-year-old male who was treated 13-months ago for an open tibial shaft fracture. He has received several courses of intravenous antibiotics for chronic osteomyelitis. Despite continued treatment with IV antibiotics, his inflammatory markers remain elevated. The decision is made to proceed with irrigation and debridement, nail removal with exchange for a polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary nail with vancomycin and tobramycin. What is the primary mechanism of action of tobramycin?
Irreversibly binds to 30S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis
Reversibly binds to 30S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis
Irreversibly binds to 50S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis
Reversibly binds to 50S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis
Inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-alanyl-D-alanine precursor units
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What mechanism allows Staphylococcus epidermidis to adhere to surfaces and resist phagocytosis?
Creation of active efflux pumps
Methylation of 23s rRNA
Alteration of cell wall permeability
MecA is the bacterial gene which encodes for a penicillin-binding protein that alters the efficacy of beta-lactam antibiotics. Which of the following species of bacteria are known to produce mecA?
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
Which of the following antibiotic families inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase?
What is the mechanism of action of vancomycin?
inhibition of cell wall synthesis
increase cell wall permeability
interference with DNA metabolism
Rifampin is highly effective against phagocytized intracellular Staphylococcus aureus especially in combination with other antibiotics because of its:
High cell penetration
Structural similarity to penicillin
Structural similarity to vancomycin
Which class of antibiotics inhibit early fracture healing through toxic effects on chondrocytes?
All of the following antibiotics function by interfering with protein synthesis by inhibiting ribosomes EXCEPT
A splenectomy is performed in a 7-year-old boy following a motor vehicle accident. All of the following are recommended for long-term management EXCEPT:
Haemophilus influenza type B vaccination
Meningococcal group C vaccination
Lifelong prophylactic antibiotics
Hepatitis A vaccination
All of the following antibiotics function by interfering with cell wall synthesis EXCEPT