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Which of the following statements defines creep, as it relates to material properties?
Progressive deformation response to constant force over an extended period of time
A solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress
The ability of a material's mechanical properties to vary according to the direction of load
The rupture of a material under repeated cyclic stresses, at a point below the normal static breaking strength
The ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing
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Which of the following definitions best describes the phenomenon of load relaxation?
Constant loading causing material to continue to deform over time
Stress at failure (the ultimate stress) divided by the strain at failure (the ultimate strain)
Decreased peak loads over time with the same amount of elongation
Stress is proportional to strain up to a limit
Strain divided by the time that the load is applied
Which of the following statements is true regarding polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)?
Barium sulfate initiates the polymerization of monomethacrylate
It is a ductile material
The Young's modulus is between cortical and cancellous bone
It resists shear better than compressive forces
The polymerization of PMMA is endothermic
Which of the following most accurately describes stainless steel?
Composed of iron-carbon alloy, modulus of elasticity less stiff than bone
Composed of cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloy, modulus of elasticity more stiff than bone
Composed of iron-carbon alloy, modulus of elasticity more stiff than titanium
Composed of cobalt-chrome-molybedenum alloy, modulus of elasticity less stiff than titanium
Composed of iron-carbon alloy, modulus of elasticity is more stiff than bone, cobalt-chrome, and aluminum-oxide (ceramic)
What description below best describes galvanic corrosion?
Corrosion resulting from an electrochemical potential created between two metals in conductive medium
Corrosion resulting from contact sites between materials under load
Corrosion resulting from oxygen tension differences
Corrosion from localized pits on metal surfaces
Corrosion from allergic reaction
An 18-year-old female soccer player sustains a non-contact deceleration injury while making a sharp pivot to strike the ball. She hears a loud pop in her knee, is unable to bear weight initially following the injury, and develops an immediate knee effusion. The structure most likely injured in this athlete exhibits all of the following biomechanical properties EXCEPT:
Compared to cold-forged cobalt chrome, titanium alloys have which property?
Increased fatigue strength
Increased yield strength
Increased endurance limit
Decreased tensile strength
Which of the following is a potential cause of fretting corrosion?
The micromotion at the femoral head-neck junction in a modular total hip replacement
A stainless-steel cerclage wire is in contact with a titanium-alloy femoral stem
Friction between polyethylene liner and femoral head leading to osteolysis
The formation of pits within a stainless-steel plate and the subsequent release of metal ions
The formation of an adherent oxide coating on titanium implants
Low toughness is a disadvantage of which of the following bearing surfaces used in total hip arthroplasty?
The elements chromium, molybdenum, and cobalt are basic components of which of the following implant materials?
When analysing complex geometric form and material property distributions, the structure of interest may be divided up into numerous connected subregions or elements within which approximate functions are used to represent the unknown quantity. What is the name for this technique?
Finite element method
Ligaments are viscoelastic, meaning that their tensile strength is affected by:
Torsion and tension only
Orientation of applied strain
Rate of applied load
A typical load-elongation curve of a ligament is shown in Figure A. What region of the curve represents elastic deformation occurring after the crimped ligament fibrils have been straightened?
The bending rigidity of the implant shown in Figure A is proportional to what power of the measured radius of the implant?
Which of the following best describes the process of galvanic corrosion?
Degradation from exposure to a harsh environment
Differences in oxygen tension within and outside of a crevice
Micromotion between material when under a load
Free radical oxidation
Electrochemical potential created between two metals in physical contact when immersed in a conductive medium
Which of the following materials has a Young's modulus of elasticity that is most similar to cortical bone
Which of the following materials is most susceptible to galvanic corrosion?
Bone is biomechanically weakest to resistance of which of the following forces?
Which of the following best describes plastic deformation?
Change in length of a material under loading that returns to its original length once the load is removed
Progressive deformation of a material in response to a constant force over an extended period
The ability of a material to resist deformation
Change in length of a material under loading that does not return to the original length once the load is removed
The relative measure of the deformation of an object due to a load
When discussing metal implants and devices, which of the following best describes fatigue?
Load at which a material fractures
Progressive deformation due to a constant force over an extended period
Change in the stress-strain relationship dependent on the rate of loading
Failure at a submaximal tensile strength level after numerous loading cycles
Change in mechanical properties as a result of the direction of a load
Which of the following defines the stress at which a material begins to undergo plastic deformation?