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A study was designed to measure the benefit of subacromial corticosteroid injections. Participants were randomized to methylprednisolone acetate 40 mg with lidocaine 1% or lidocaine 1% alone. The participants were not provided with information of their treatment allocation. The subacromial injection was prepared and administered by a single orthopaedic surgeon. Results were collected by the orthopaedic surgeon using clinical and patient satisfaction outcome scores at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. Which of the following would best describe this type of study?
Double blinded randomized and controlled study
Single blinded randomized study
Prospective cohort study
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A clinical trial is underway for patients with wrist extensor tendinitis. One group of 100 patients are treated with short arm casting. Another group of 100 patients are treated with physical therapy. During analysis of the results, it becomes apparent that 30 patients in the physical therapy group did not complete the full course of physical therapy. Despite not completing a full course of physical therapy, these 30 patients were included in the physical therapy group for analysis. This analysis is an example of which of the following?
What is the primary purpose of utilizing a computer random number generator for patient randomization when designing a Level I therapeutic controlled trial?
To increase treatment effect
To prevent selection bias
To generate enough power
To achieve statistical significance
To perform as-treated analysis
A clinical study for lateral epicondylitis allocates 1 group to receive physical therapy for 4 weeks and another group a new oral medication for 4 weeks. Then the 2 groups immediately switch therapies with one another for the next 4 weeks. The half-life of the medication used in the study is 2 weeks. Which of the following best describes the bias that is present in this study design?
Washout period bias
A research study is initially designed as a high-quality randomized control trial. The study seeks to demonstrate a different clinical outcome with treatment A compared to treatment B for a specific disease. However, at the completion of the study the investigators are only able to obtain 70% follow-up of patients. What level of evidence should be assigned to this study?