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An 85-year-old woman undergoes the treatment seen in Figure A for a displaced left femoral neck fracture. During wound closure, the patient becomes hypoxic and hypotensive. Despite aggressive resuscitation efforts, she passes away three hours later in the intensive care unit. The autopsy findings seen in Figure B from the patient's lungs are most likely the result of which of the following
Reaming for the femoral component
Insertion of a femoral component after cement pressurization
Utilization of undersized broaches during canal preparation
Inadequate beta blockade
Use of spinal anesthesia
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Embolic material generated during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) shown in Figure 29 is composed of which of the following substances?
Fat and air
Fat and marrow
Fat and cement
Fat and bone
A 79-year-old female falls onto her right hip at home and sustains the injury shown in Figure A. She undergoes an uncemented unipolar hemiarthroplasty. During insertion of the stem into the femoral canal, the patient becomes hypotensive and hypoxic. Which of the following has most likely occurred?
Femoral shaft fracture
Inadequate fluid resuscitation during surgery
Acute myocardial infarction
Pulmonary embolism caused by dislodging of deep venous thrombosis during hip exposure
Intramedullary fat and marrow embolization
In a patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty, the femoral and tibial bone resections can be done using intra-or extra-medullary alignment systems. Extra-medullary guidance systems have what benefit over intra-medullary guidance systems?
Decreased fracture risk
Decreased embolization risk
Decreased surface area available for cement interdigitation
Increased risk of blood loss and/or transfusion requirement
Increased rates of cerebral ischemia
A 20-year-old male sustains bilateral humeral shaft fractures and bilateral femoral shaft fractures from a motor vehicle collision. While awaiting surgery, the patient suddenly becomes tachycardic, hypoxemic and experiences mental status changes; physical exam demonstrates multiple petechiae in his bilateral axilla. CT angiography is ordered and is negative for pulmonary embolus. What is the most likely diagnosis?
fat embolism syndrome