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Which of the following is true regarding osteoprotegerin (OPG)?
It is secreted by osteoclasts
It increases bone resorption
Binds to prostoglandin E2 before stimulating osteoclasts
Osteoprotegerin knock-out mice develop osteopetrosis
Binds to and sequesters RANKL
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Which of the following mediators reduces bone resorption?
Receptor activator of nuclear-factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is an important regulator of bone resorption. Which of the following cells is the MAJOR source of RANKL in bone remodelling?
A 55-year-old female with a history of metastatic breast cancer develops shoulder pain without any trauma. Which of the following is involved with the findings shown in Figures A and B?
All of the following substances inhibit osteoclast activity, EXCEPT?
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a)
Which of the following bone modulators primarily utilizes adenylyl cyclase as a mediator for its cellular signaling within osteocytes?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)
Transforming growth factor-Beta (TGF-ß)
Which of the following best describes the mechanism by which osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays a role in RANKL-mediated osteoclast bone resorption?
inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclast bone resorption by directly binding to RANKL
inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclast bone resorption by directly binding to the RANK receptor on osteoclasts
stimulates RANKL-mediated osteoclast bone resorption by directly binding to RANKL
stimulates RANKL-mediated osteoclast bone resorption by directly binding to the RANK receptor on osteoclasts
stimulates RANKL-mediated osteoclast bone resorption by directly binding to PTH
Calcitonin plays a role in bone metabolism by which of the following mechanisms?
Decreasing osteoclast activity by directly binding to receptor on the osteoclast
Decreasing osteoclast activity by blocking the receptor activator for nuclear factor ligand (RANKL) pathway
Increasing osteoblast activity by receptor activator for nuclear factor ligand (RANKL) pathway
Decreasing osteoclast activity by stimulating PTH to activate adenylyl cyclase
Increasing osteoclast activity by directly binding to receptor on the osteoclast
The Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor kappa B Ligand is believed to be an im...
Bone Remodeling and regulation including osteoprotegrin, RANK, RANK-ligand