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Updated: Jun 15 2021

Bone Marrow

  • Types of bone marrow
    • Gelatinous tissue found in the inner spaces of bone that contains progenitor cells and stromal cells
    • Types of bone marrow
      • red marrow
        • hematopoietic tissue
          • composition
            • 40% water
            • 40% fat
            • 20% protein
      • yellow marrow
        • fatty tissue
          • composition
            • 15% water
            • 80% fat
            • 5% protein
    • Function
      • primary function of hematopoiesis
      • controls the inner diameter of bone
  • Red Bone Marrow
    • Location
      • most commonly found in flat bones
        • ribs, ilium, sternum, vertebrae, skull
        • epiphysis/metaphysis of long bone (children only)
    • Function
      • contains mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells
      • red marrow slowly changes to yellow marrow with age
  • Yellow Bone Marrow
    • Location
      • most commonly found in diaphysis or shaft of long bones
        • femur, humerus, tibia
    • Function
      • contains mostly fat cells
      • may revert to red bone marrow if there is an increased demand for red blood cells (e.g. trauma)
  • Bone Marrow Examination
    • Biopsy
      • location
        • anterior or posterior iliac crest
        • sternum
        • tibia
      • indications
        • malignancies (most common)
          • multiple myeloma, lymphoma, leukemia, metastatic disease
        • infection
          • TB (rare)
      • technique
        • needle/trochar biopsy
        • open surgical biopsy
  • Clinical Aspects of Cell Therapy
    • Bone Marrow Aspirate
      • applications in orthopedic surgery
        • fracture union/non-union
        • osteonecrosis
        • mesenchymal tissue engineering (e.g., bone, ligaments, cartilage)
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