Updated: 10/10/2016

Bone Marrow

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Introduction
 

 
  • Gelatinous tissue found in the inner spaces of bone that contains progenitor cells and stromal cells
  • Types of bone marrow
    • red marrow
      • hematopoietic tissue 
        • composition
          • 40% water
          • 40% fat
          • 20% protein
    • yellow marrow
      • fatty tissue 
        • composition
          • 15% water
          • 80% fat
          • 5% protein
  • Function
    • primary function of hematopoiesis
    • controls the inner diameter of bone
Red Bone Marrow
  • Location
    • most commonly found in flat bones
      • ribs, ilium, sternum, vertebrae, skull 
      • epiphysis/metaphysis of long bone (children only)
  • Function
    • contains mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells
    • red marrow slowly changes to yellow marrow with age
Yellow Bone Marrow
  • Location
    • most commonly found in diaphysis or shaft of long bones
      • femur, humerus, tibia
  • Function
    • contains mostly fat cells
    • may revert to red bone marrow if there is an increased demand for red blood cells (e.g. trauma)
Bone Marrow Examination
  • Biopsy
    • location
      • anterior or posterior iliac crest
      • sternum
      • tibia
    • indications
      • malignancies (most common)
        • multiple myeloma, lymphoma, leukemia, metastatic disease
      • infection
        • TB (rare)
    • technique
      • needle/trochar biopsy
      • open surgical biopsy
Clinical Aspects of Cell Therapy
  • Bone Marrow Aspirate
    • applications in orthopedic surgery
      • fracture union/non-union
      • osteonecrosis
      • mesenchymal tissue engineering (e.g., bone, ligaments, cartilage)
 

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