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The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence of extracellular bone proteins directly allows which of the following?
Interaction with integrins
Chemoattraction of osteoclasts
Binding to vinculin protein
Attachment site of Sharpey's fibers
Decrease in bone stiffness
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Which of the following is true regarding the cell seen in Figure A?
Originates from hematopoietic cells from a macrophage lineage
Derived from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells
They are former osteoblasts trapped in the matrix they produced
They become cartilage under intermediate strain and low oxygen tension
They form bone by producing non-mineralized matrix
Microscopic description of "multinucleated giant cells that originate from monocyte lineage and possess a ruffled border" best describe which of the following cell types?
Cathepsin K is an enzyme produced by osteoclasts. What is the function of cathepsin K?
Reduction of disulfide bonds in the extracellular matrix
Activation of RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B)
Antagonize the action of RANK
Absorb water in the extracellular matrix
Which of the following cell types releases osteoclastogenic cytokines such as RANKL?
Which gene or protein is the most specific marker of mature osteoblasts but is not expressed by immature, proliferating osteoblasts?
What is the function of the core binding factor alpha-1 (Cbfa1/Runx2)?
Phosphorylation and intracellular activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs)
Chemotaxis of mesenchymal stem cells to sites of skeletal fractures
Which system of lacunar networks is used among osteocytes to communicate?
Secondary messenger systems
Mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into all the following cell types EXCEPT?
Vitronectin is an important receptor involved in which of the following functions?
Interacts with RANK Ligand to stimulate osteoclasts
Osteoclasts attaching to bone
Competitive inhibition of RANK Ligand
Chemotaxis in fracture healing
Type II collagen formation