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Updated: Mar 13 2024

Syndactyly of the Toes

  • summary
    • Syndactyly of the Toes is a congenital condition characterized by the fusion of the bone or skin in the foot digits.
    • Diagnosis is made clinically.
    • Treatment is usually observation as this is a painless aesthetic deformity.
  • Epidemiology
    • Incidence
      • occurs in 1 in 2,000 births
    • Anatomic location
      • most frequently occurs between the second and third toe
  • Etiology
    • Pathophysiology
      • cellular biology
        • due to incomplete or absent apoptosis during gestation
    • Genetics
      • inheritance pattern
        • most are autosomal dominant
    • Associated conditions
      • Familial Syndactyly
      • Down`s Syndrome
      • Klippel-Feil Syndrome
      • Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome
  • Classification
    • Two types
      • simple
        • if soft tissue only
      • complex
        • if bony fusion present
  • Presentation
    • Symptoms
      • usually painless with cosmetic concerns only
  • Imaging
    • Radiographs
      • AP of the foot
  • Treatment
    • Nonoperative
      • observation
        • indications
          • simple syndactyly
            • rarely requires treatment as this is an aesthetic deformity
            • complications include contractures and painful scar tissue
    • Operative
      • digit release
        • indications
          • complex syndactyly
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