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A 9-month-old boy is referred for evaluation of bilateral 'rocker bottom' feet. Figure A exhibits a lateral foot radiograph. This diagnosis has a high association with which of the following congenital anomalies?
Congenital heart disease
Deletion on chromosome 22q11
Duplication on chromosome 12
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What is the preferred treatment for newly diagnosed irreducible congenital vertical talus in a toddler?
Casting followed by open reduction and Achillies lengthening
Serial Ponseti method casting
Percutaneous achillies lengthening
Talectomy with tendon interposition
Subtalar fusion with soft tissue release
All of the following are known to be associated with the deformity shown in Figure A EXCEPT:
Amniotic band syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy
Which of the following is not characteristic of the pathologic process displayed in Figure A.
Dislocation of the talonavicular joint
Associated with posteromedial tibia bowing
Associated with neural tube defects
Associated with arthrogryposis
Rigid rocker bottom deformity
Figures 8a and 8b show the clinical photograph and radiograph of a 4-month-old infant who has a left foot deformity. Examination reveals that the foot deformity is an isolated entity, and the infant has no known neuromuscular conditions or genetic syndromes. Which of the following studies will best confirm the diagnosis?
MRI of the foot
Static ultrasound examination of the foot in dorsiflexion
Lateral radiograph of the foot in maximum plantar flexion
Lateral radiograph of the foot in maximum dorsiflexion
CT of the foot
An 13-month-old boy is evaluated for a foot deformity and asymmetric gait. A clinical photo is shown in Figure A. A plantarflexion lateral radiograph is shown in Figure B. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Congenital vertical talus
Congenital oblique talus
Normal radiographic findings
A 2-month old infant is born with a rocker-bottom foot deformity. A radiograph is shown in figure A. Why is the initial treatment manipulation and casting?
to help stretch the dorsolateral soft-tissue before surgery
the deformity usually corrects with non-operative treatment
surgery is usually deferred until 5 years of age
surgery is usually deferred until 10 years of age
surgery does not help this condition