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A 67-year-old female who sustained a proximal humerus fracture as a result of a fall goes on to develop avascular necrosis (AVN). An injury was most likely sustained to which of the following arteries labeled 1-5 in Figure A?
Artery labeled 1
Artery labeled 2
Artery labeled 3
Artery labeled 4
Artery labeled 5
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What is the primary function of the structure labeled with an asterisk in Figure A?
Prevents inferior translation of the humerus with the arm by the side
Provides internal rotation of the humerus
Prevents anterior translation of the humerus with the arm in 45 degrees of abduction
Prevents anterior translation of the humerus with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction
Provides supination of the forearm and elbow flexion
What structure provides dynamic glenohumeral stability by compressing the humeral head against the glenoid?
Superior glenohumeral ligament
Middle glenohumeral ligament
Teres major muscle
Rotator cuff muscles
Besides the biceps tendon, which of the following structures also pass through the rotator interval?
The coracohumeral ligament only
The coracohumeral and superior glenohumeral ligaments
The coracohumeral, superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments
The superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments
The superior glenohumeral ligament only
A 15-year-old wrestler sustains an abduction, hyperextension, and external rotation injury to his right shoulder. The MRI scan findings shown in Figures 27a and 27b are most consistent with
an avulsion of the lesser tuberosity.
a midsubstance tear of the capsule.
a tear of the anterior inferior labrum.
a tear of the subscapularis.
a tear of the humeral insertion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament.
A 62-year-old man with a long history of right shoulder pain and weakness is scheduled to undergo hemiarthroplasty. Based on the radiographs shown in Figures 6a through 6c, what preoperative factor will most affect postoperative functional outcome?
Humeral head erosion
Rotator cuff integrity
Status of the coracoacromial ligament
The superior glenohumeral ligament is under the greatest stress when the humeral head and arm are in which of the following positions?
Anteriorly translated with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction and externally rotated
Inferiorly translated with the arm in 5 degrees of adduction
Anteriorly translated with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction and internally rotated
Inferiorly translated with the arm in 45 degrees of abduction and internal rotation
Inferiorly translated with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction and neutral rotation
Which of the following is considered the primary static restraint to anterior gleno-humeral translation with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction?
Shape of the bony articulation
Negative intra-articular pressure
Superior gleno-humeral ligament complex
Middle gleno-humeral ligament complex
Inferior gleno-humeral ligament complex