Recurrent posterior instability of the shoulder can be difficult to diagnose and technically challenging to treat. Although not as common as anterior instability, recurrent posterior shoulder instability is prevalent among certain demographic and sporting groups, and may be overlooked if one is not aware of the typical examination and radiographic findings. The diagnosis itself can be difficult as patients typically present with vague or confusing symptoms, and treatment has evolved from open to arthroscopic surgical techniques. This article is intended to review the anatomy and biomechanics associated with posterior shoulder instability, to discuss the pathogenesis and presentation of posterior instability, and to describe the variety of treatment options and clinical results.