Updated: 6/3/2021

Phases of Throwing

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  • Phases of Throwing
    • There are 5 main phases of throwing
      • wind up (see below)
      • cocking
      • acceleration
      • deceleration
      • follow-through
    • Biomechanics
      • scapula must work in concert with humerus to maintain glenohumeral stability
      • the entire throwing motion takes approximately 2 seconds
        • with wind up and acceleration phases taking approximately 75% of time (1.5 seconds)
  • 1. Wind Up
    • Description
      • minimal force on the shoulder during first stage
    • Muscle activity
      • rotator cuff muscles are inactive during this phase
  • 2. Cocking
    • Sometimes described as 2 sub-phases
      • early cocking
        • peak muscle activation
          • deltoid
      • late cocking
        • high torque phase with maximal shoulder external rotation
        • elbow valgus stress is greatest in late cocking phase
        • peak muscle activation
          • supraspinatus
          • infraspinatus
          • teres minor
        • FDS and FCU muscles provide local dynamic stability of the elbow during late cocking
          • protective against injury to UCL
    • Associated pathology
      • Medial ulnar collateral ligament elbow injury 
      • internal Impingement
      • GIRD (glenohumeral internal rotation defect)
      • SLAP tears ("Peel-back" mechanism during late cocking)
  • 3. Acceleration
    • Description
      • rotates ball to release point
    • Muscle activity
      • early muscle activation
        • triceps
      • late muscle activation
        • pectoralis major
        • latissimus dorsi
        • serratus anterior
  • 4. Deceleration
    • Description
      • center of gravity moves over plantar foot
    • Muscle activity
      • eccentric contraction of all muscles is required to slow down arm motion
      • highest torque phase
    • Associated pathology
      • recognized as the most harmful phase of throwing
      • associated injuries
        • superior labrum (SLAP lesion)
        • biceps tendon injury
        • brachialis injury
        • teres minor injury
  • 5. Follow-through
    • Description
      • phase where body rebalances and stops forward motion
    • Muscle activity
      • muscle activity returns to resting levels

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(OBQ11.107) Which of the following is true of the scapula during an overhead throwing motion?

QID: 3530
1

It maximally retracts on ball release

2%

(69/3677)

2

It protracts during late cocking to prevent impingment on the rotator cuff

17%

(631/3677)

3

It must rotate in the cocking and acceleration phases to prevent impingement on the rotator cuff

75%

(2740/3677)

4

It must remain fixed during the throwing motion to impart maximal energy

4%

(149/3677)

5

It has no effect on concavity-compression

1%

(49/3677)

L 2 C

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