Updated: 6/16/2021

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

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  • Summary
    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a common congenital disorder caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Patients presents with physical and mental developmental delay.
    • Diagnosis is made by typical clinical features present at birth in the setting of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. 
    • Treatment is a multidisciplinary approach to address orthopedic, neurological, and developmental abnormalities. 
  • Epidemiology
    • Incidence
      • 1.9 per 1,000 births
  • Etiology
    • Associated conditions
      • medical manifestations
        • growth disturbances (before and after birth)
        • central nervous system dysfunction
        • dysmorphic facies (wide-set eyes, thin philtrum)
      • orthopaedic manifestations
        • joint contractures
        • hip dislocation
        • congenital fusions of cervical spine
        • congenital fusions of upper extremity
        • congenital scoliosis
        • pectus excavatum
        • myelodysplasia
  • Presentation
    • Symptoms
      • physical and mental disability
      • poor motor coordination
      • classic facial deformities
    • Physical exam
      • short palpebral fissures
      • epicanthal folds
      • thin upper lip with smooth groove
      • developmental delay
      • microcephaly
      • micrognathia
      • decreased muscle tone
  • Differential
    • Other teratogen exposure
    • Intrauterine trauma
    • Cerebral palsy without FAS
  • Prognosis
    • Outcomes range widely, but most infants show mental disability

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