The anterior tibial artery lies on the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane and supplies the anterior compartment of the leg. The anterior tibial recurrent artery arises superiorly over the tibial tubercle to supply the anterior knee and can be injured by displaced fractures of the tubercle.
Pape et al stress that soft tissue disruption associated with tibial tubercle injuries are often under appreciated and compartment syndrome should be considered, especially in adolescent boys.
Answer 1: The peroneal artery is a branch off the posterior tibial artery distal to the knee joint, and descends in the posterior compartment.
Answer 2: The posterior tibial artery is a branch of the popliteal artery and carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot.
Answer 3: The middle geniculate artery comes off of the popliteal artery and supplies the ACL.
Answer 4: The saphenous branch of descending genicular artery pierces the aponeurotic covering of the adductor canal, and accompanies the saphenous nerve to the medial side of the knee.
Pape JM, Goulet JA, Hensinger RN. Compartment syndrome complicating tibial tubercle avulsion. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1993
PMID:8403649 (Link to Abstract)
Zionts LE in Green NE, Swiontkowski MF (eds): Skeletal Trauma in Children, 2003.