TFCC Injury

Topic updated on 03/16/14 12:13pm
Introduction
  • Mechanism of TFCC injury
    • Type 1 traumatic injury
      • mechanism
        • most common is fall on extended wrist with forearm pronation
        • traction injury to ulnar side of wrist
      • traction injury to ulnar wrist
    • Type 2 degenerative injury
      • associated with positive ulnar variance
      • associated with ulnocarpal impaction
Anatomy
  • TFCC made up of
    • dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments
      • deep ligaments known as ligamentum subcruatum
    • central articular disc
    • meniscus homolog
    • ulnar collateral ligament
    • ECU subsheath
    • origin of ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments
  • Blood supply
    • periphery is well vascularized (10-40% of the periphery)
    • central portion is avascular
  • Origin
    • dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments originate at the sigmoid notch of the radius
  • Insertion
    • dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments converge at the base of the ulnar styloid
Classification

Class 1 - Traumatic TFCC Injuries
1A Central perforation or tear
1B Ulnar avulsion (without ulnar styloid fx)
1C Distal avulsion (origin of UL and UT ligaments)
1D Radial avulsion
Class 2 - Degenerative TFCC Injuries
2A TFCC wear and thinning
2B Lunate and/or ulnar chondromalacia + 2A
2C TFCC perforation + 2B
2D Ligament disruption + 2C
2E Ulnocarpal and DRUJ arthritis + 2D
 
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • wrist pain
    • turning a door key often painful
  • Physical exam
    • positive "fovea" sign 
      • tenderness in the soft spot between the ulnar styloid and flexor carpi ulnaris tendon, between the volar surface of the ulnar head and the pisiform
      • 95% sensitivity and 87% specificity for foveal disruptions of TFCC or ulnotriquetral ligament injuries
    • pain elicited with ulnar deviation (TFCC compression) or radial deviation (TFCC tension)
Imaging
  • Radiographs
    • usually negative
    • zero rotation PA view evaluates ulnar variance
    • dynamic pronated PA grip view may show pathology
  • Arthography
    • joint injection shows extravasation
  • MRI
    • has largely replaced arthrography
    • tear at ulnar part of lunate indicates ulnocarpal impaction
    • sensitivity = 74-100%
  • Arthroscopy
    • most accurate method of diagnosis
    • indicated in symptomatic patients after failing several months of splinting and activity modification
Differential
  • Differential for ulnar sided wrist pain
Treatment
  • Nonoperative
    • imobilization, NSAIDS, steroid injections
      • indications
        • all acute Type I injuries
        • first line of treatment for Type 2 injuries
  • Operative
    • arthroscopic debridement
      • indications
        • type 1A
        • diagnostic gold standard
    • arthroscopic repair
      • indications
        • type 1B, 1C, 1D
        • best for ulnar and dorsal/ulnar tears
        • generally acute, athletic injuries more amenable to repair than chronic injuries
      • outcomes
        • patient should expect to regain 80% of motion and grip strength when injuries are classified as acute (<3 months)
    • ulnar diaphyseal shortening
      • indications
        • Type II with ulnar positive variance is > 2mm
        • advantage of effectively tightening the ulnocarpal ligaments and is favored when LT instability is present
    • Wafer procedure
      • indications
        • Type II with ulnar positive variance is < 2mm
        • type 2A-C
    • limited ulnar head resection
      • indications
        • type 2D
    • Darrach procedure
      • indications
        • contraindicated due to problems with ulnar stump instability
Techniques
  • Arthroscopic debridement post
    • approach
      • arthroscopic approach to the wrist
        • performed through combination of 3-4 and 6R portal
    • technique
      • maintain 2 mm rim peripherally otherwise joint can become unstable
    • pros & cons
      • not effective if patient has ulnar positive variance
      • 80% of patients obtain good relief of pain
  • Arthroscopic repair
    • approach
      • arthroscopic approach to the wrist
    • technique
      • many techniques exist such as outside-in and inside-out
      • generally suture based repair
    • pros & cons
      • only works for peripheral tears where blood supply is present
      • patient immobilized for 6 weeks
    • complications
      • ECU tendonitis from suture knot
      • dorsal sensory nerve injury
  • Ulnar diaphyseal shortening
    • approach
      • dorsal approach to the forearm
    • technique
      • osteotomy of the diaphysis or metaphysis followed by plate fixation
    • pros & cons
      • can address > 2 mm ulnar variance
      • requires immobilization and time for fracture healing
      • can help tension the ulnocarpal ligaments
    • complications
      • nonunion
      • hardware irritation necessitating removal
  • Wafer procedure
    • approach
      • dorsal approach to the forearm
    • technique
      • ulnar cortex is not disrupted
      • do not extend bone removal into the DRUJ
    • pros & cons
      • intrinsic stability of ECU, TFCC, and ulnar periosteum obviate need for plate fixation
  • Limited ulnar head resection
    • approach
      • arthroscopic approach to the wrist
    • technique
      • removal of approximately 2-4 mm of bone under the TFCC
      • distal ulnar burred through central TFCC defect
    • pros & cons
      • can be technically difficult to obtain level shortening through TFCC window
      • only applicable when patient has < 2mm of ulnar variance
  • Darrach procedure post
    • approach
      • dorsal approach to the forearm
    • technique
      • resection of the distal 1-2cm of the distal ulna
      • TFCC should be approximated to the wrist capsule
    • pros & cons
      • salvage procedure for pain relief only
      • distal joint is unstable
    • complications
      • ECU tendon can sublux over remaining ulna causing pain

 

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Qbank (2 Questions)

TAG
(SBQ07.3) A 19-year-old football player suffers a fall onto a pronated, extended wrist. He has pain with resisted ulnar deviation and is tender to palpation just distal to the ulnar styloid. He has no tenderness over the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon. Current radiographs are shown in in Figures A and B and and MRI of the wrist is shown in FIgure C. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis? Topic Review Topic
FIGURES: A   B   C      

1. ECU tendon rupture
2. Triangular fibrocartilaginous complex (TFCC) tear
3. Hook of hamate fracture
4. Scapholunate ligament injury
5. Perilunate dislocation

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
TAG
(OBQ05.273) Which of the following structures is an anatomical component of the triangular fibrocartilage complex? Topic Review Topic

1. Extensor carpi ulnaris tendon sheath
2. Lunotriquetral interosseous ligament
3. Extensor digiti minimi tendon sheath
4. Radioscaphocapitate ligament
5. Flexor carpi ulnaris tendon sheath

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶



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