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Review Question - QID 214091

QID 214091 (Type "214091" in App Search)
Which of the following cytokines inhibits the process depicted in Figure A?
  • A

Interleukin 1

8%

198/2410

Interleukin 6

13%

319/2410

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

11%

272/2410

Interferon gamma

41%

988/2410

Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa (RANK) B ligand

25%

611/2410

  • A

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Of the above cytokines, only inteferon gamma has been demonstrated to inhibit osteolysis, the process depicted in Figure A.

The cellular orchestrators of osteolysis in arthroplasty are macrophages, which secrete numerous mediators that incite a complex cascade after activation. This ultimately results in osteoclast maturation and bone resorption. Promoters of osteolysis include interleukin 1, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and RANK B ligand. Inhibitors of osteolysis include interferon gamma, osteoprotegrin, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10.

Talmo et al. reviewed the pathophysiology of osteolysis after total hip arthroplasty. They reported that along with targeting osteoclasts, several cytokines and inflammatory mediators, including TNF-alpha and interleukin 1 are critical participants in osteolysis and may represent key targets for pharmacologic intervention.

Holt et al. reviewed the cell signaling molecules implicated in osteolysis. They reported that the most important mediators were TNF-alpha and IL-1. They highlighted that several studies have reported these molecules to be present in high concentrations in the surrounding pseudomembranes in revision arthroplasty.

Figure A demonstrates retro-acetabular osteolysis after a total hip arthroplasty.

Incorrect Answers:
Answers 1, 2, 3, and 5: Interleukin 1, 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and RANK B ligand are all promoters (not inhibitors) of osteolysis.

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