Please confirm topic selection

Are you sure you want to trigger topic in your Anconeus AI algorithm?

Please confirm action

You are done for today with this topic.

Would you like to start learning session with this topic items scheduled for future?

Updated: Jan 22 2024

Foot Muscle Forces & Deformities

  • Introduction
      • Simple Deformities
      • Deformity
      • Strong Muscle
      • Weak Muscle
      • Equinus
      • Gastroc-soleus complex
      • Dorsiflexors
      • Cavus
      • Plantar fascia, intrinsics
      • Dorsiflexors
      • Varus
      • Posterior tib, anteiror tib
      • Peroneal brevis
      • Supination
      • Anterior tibialis
      • Peroneus longus
      • Flatfoot
      • Peroneus brevis
      • Posterior tibial tendon
      • Complex Deformities
      • Deformity
      • Strong Muscle
      • Weak Muscle
      • Equinovarus + supination
      • Gastroc-soleus complex, posterior tibialis, anterior tibialis
      • Peroneus brevis & longus
      • Equinovalgus
      • Gastroc-soleus complex, peroneals
      • Posterior tibialis, anterior tibialis
      • Calcaneovalgus
      • Foot dorsiflexors/evertors (L4 and L5)
      • Plantar flexors /inverters (S1 and S2)
  • Introduction
    • Equinovarus foot
      • most common deformity following stroke
        • use AFO and physical therapy for at least 6 months to await for possible neuro recovery
        • overactivity of the tibialis anterior, with contributions from the FHL, FDL, and tibialis posterior
      • treatment
        • nonoperative
          • AFO fitting
          • physical therapy
          • Phenol or botox injections
        • surgical
          • split anterior tibial tendon transfer (SPLATT)
          • flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer to the dorsum of the foot and release of the flexor digitorum longus and brevis tendons at the base of each toe
          • gastrocnemius or achilles lengthening
    • Foot drop
      • Inability to dorsiflex at the ankle and/or toes
      • Commonly result from peroneal nerve palsy
        • Multiple etiologies
          • central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, nerve roots)
          • peripheral nervous system (sciatic nerve, peroneal nerve)
          • traumatic (knee dislocation, laceration, blunt trauma)
          • compressive (compressive mass, deformity correction)
          • systemic (diabetic polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy)
          • Iatrogenic (laceration, casting, positioning, surgical injury)
          • Mechanical (muscle debridement, tumor excision, etc.)
      • Presentation - variable depending on location of nerve injury
        • Motor
          • Loss of ankle/toe dorsiflexion (DPN)
          • Loss of ankle eversion (SPN)
        • Sensory
          • Loss of first dorsal webspace sensation (DPN)
          • Loss of lateral leg/dorsal foot sensation (SPN)
      • Treatment
        • Nonoperative
          • Observation
          • AFO bracing
          • Therapy - stretching and supple joints
        • Operative
          • Acute injury
            • Laceration - repair, grafting, or nerve transfer
          • Chronic injury
            • Tendon transfer
              • Posterior tibial tendon transfer to lateral cuneiform +/- gastroc or Achilles tendon lengthening
  • Physical Exam
    • Silfverskiöld test
      • equivalent ankle dorsiflexion with knee flexion and extension= achilles tightness
1 of 3
1 of 26
Private Note

Attach Treatment Poll
Treatment poll is required to gain more useful feedback from members.
Please enter Question Text
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options