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A 28-year-old male patient dives head first into a shallow pool. He presents to the emergency room and radiographs and a CT are performed and shown in Figures A-D. Which of the following statements are true regarding these radiographic findings.
The transverse ligament is disrupted, the fracture is unstable and should be treated with either a rigid orthosis, halo immobilization, or surgical stabilization
The transverse ligament is intact, the fracture is stable and can be treated in a soft cervical collar
It is classified as Anderson and D'Alonzo Type II because the fracture extends into the C1/C2 facet
It is classified as Anderson and D'Alonzo Type III because the fracture extends into the C1/C2 facet
The imaging findings are relatively common and represent a congenital incomplete formation of the posterior arch and not a traumatic injury
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A 35-year-old patient sustains a bilateral anterior and posterior arch (C1) injury with an intact transverse ligament. Which of the following treatment options is most appropriate?
Soft collar orthosis for 4-6 weeks
Rigid collar orthosis for 6-12 weeks
Posterior C1-C2 fusion
Figure A shows the coronal and axial CT images of a 27-year-old male that suffered a fall from a significant height. Which of the following radiographic measurements would best indicate disruption of the transverse ligament?
Atlantodental interval (ADI) of 2mm
Posterior atlanto-dens interval (PADI) of 16mm
C2 pars horizontal displacement of 3 mm
Combined lateral mass displacement of 8.2mm
A Power's ratio of 1.2
A Gallie C1-2 fusion with sublaminar wiring of C1 to the spinous process of C2 is a valid treatment option for which of the following injury patterns?
comminuted C1 burst fracture
type I odontoid fracture
type III odontoid fracture
transverse ligament disruption
Biomechanical studies have shown that an atlanto-dens interval of >7mm is likely associated with?
an intact transverse ligament, with ruptured alar and apical ligaments
a ruptured transverse ligament, with intact alar and apical ligaments
a ruptured transverse and apical ligament, with an intact alar ligaments
a ruptured transverse and alar ligament, with an intact apical ligaments
a ruptured transverse and alar ligament, and a ruptured tectorial membrane