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Updated: Jul 18 2023

Heat Illness and Stroke

  • Heat Cramps
    • Definition
      • painful contractions of large muscle groups because of decreased hydration and a decrease of serum sodium and chloride.
      • cramps can also occur secondary to increased water intake leading to dilutional hyponatremia
    • Treatment
      • rapid cooling
      • stretching
      • electrolyte and fluid replacement
  • Heat Syncope
    • Definition
      • transient loss of consciousness with peripheral vasodilation and decreased cardiac output with normal body temperature.
    • Pathophysiology
      • results from sever orthostatic event secondary to elevated temperatures
    • Treatment
      • fluid replacement
      • lying supine with leg elevation
  • Heat Exhaustion
    • Definition
      • defined as a core temperature of less than 102.2 degrees F (39 degrees C) and an absence of central nervous system dysfunction.
    • Epidemiology
      • the most common heat-induced condition
    • Pathophysiology
      • hypernatremic heat exhaustion results from inadequate water replacement.
    • Symptoms
      • consist of profuse sweating and nausea/vomiting
    • Treatment
      • table salts
      • IV hydration
      • cooling
  • Heat Illness
    • Treatment
      • drink fluids
      • low osmolarity solution (<10%)
      • carbs and stimulate GI fluid absorption
    • Monitor weight
    • 5% loss - not able to return to play
    • 7% loss - see physician
  • Heat Stroke
    • Introduction
      • a medical emergency with a high death rate that results from failure of the thermoregulatory mechanisms of the body
    • Definition
      • hyperthermia
      • tachycardia/tachypnea
      • central nervous system dysfunction
      • cessation of sweating with hot, dry skin
      • anhidrosis
      • Body temperature above 40.5 degrees Celsius
    • Epidemiology
      • second most common cause of death in football players
    • Treatment
      • rapid reduction in body core temperature
        • lower temp below 39°C (102° F) with
        • ice immersion
        • cooling blanket
        • fanning
        • internal cooling if needed
        • IV hydration
    • Complications
      • heat sensitivity
        • may last 1 year
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