Stress fractures of the tarsal navicular, first described in 1970, were initially thought to be rare injuries. Heightened awareness and increased participation in athletics has resulted in more frequent diagnosis and more aggressive treatment. The vascular supply of the tarsal navicular results in a relatively avascular zone in the central one-third, which experiences severe compressive forces during explosive manoeuvers such as jumping and sprinting. Repetitive activities can result in stress reactions or even fracture. Patients often initially complain of vague midfoot pain localized to the medial border of the foot. The pain is usually exacerbated by activity and relieved with rest. The diagnosis of tarsal navicular stress fracture is challenging because of the high false negative rate of plain radiographs. Additional diagnostic testing with bone scan, CT and MRI are often required for diagnosis. The proper treatment of tarsal navicular stress fractures has become a topic of debate as surgical intervention for these injuries has increased. In a recent meta-analysis, Torg et al. found that 96% of tarsal navicular stress fractures treated with non-weight-bearing (NWB) conservative treatment for 5 weeks went on to successful outcomes. However, only 44% of patients treated with weight-bearing (WB) conservative treatment had successful outcomes. Surgical treatment resulted in successful outcome in 82% of patients. Interestingly, the meta-analysis also found that fracture type did not correlate with outcomes, regardless of treatment. The meta-analysis also found no difference in time to return to activity between patients treated surgically and those who underwent NWB conservative treatment. The recent literature indicates that patients are undergoing surgery or are receiving WB conservative management as a first-line treatment option with the expectation that they will return to their activity more quickly. Although surgical treatment seems increasingly common, the results statistically demonstrate an inferior trend to conservative NWB management. Conservative NWB management is the standard of care for initial treatment of both partial and complete stress fractures of the tarsal navicular. WB conservative treatment and surgical intervention are not recommended.