A 46-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a recurrent giant-cell tumor of the distal femur. This was his fourth recurrence, and it had occurred 16 years after his last treatment. The resected recurrent tumor was histologically determined to be a conventional giant-cell tumor. However, a single lung metastatic lesion and local recurrence were noticed 6 months after the resection, both of which were surgically excised. The lung lesion was histologically determined to be an implantation of giant-cell tumor, whereas the local recurrent lesion contained a clearly separated fibrosarcomatous area within the conventional giant-cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse and strong p53 expression in the fibrosarcomatous area. Direct sequencing revealed a p53 mutation in the sarcomatous area and a recessive mutant signal in the conventional area. The lung lesion also contained the same p53 mutation. Identification of the p53 mutation may help in diagnosing potential malignant transformation of giant-cell tumor.

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