This clinical practice guideline is based on a systematic review of published studies on the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis in the adult patient population. Of the 16 recommendations addressed, nine are inconclusive. Two were reached by consensus-that physicians use perioperative mechanical and/or chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis for shoulder arthroplasty patients and that total shoulder arthroplasty not be performed in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis who have an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Four options were graded as weak: the use of injectable viscosupplementation; total shoulder arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty as treatment; avoiding shoulder arthroplasty by surgeons who perform fewer than two shoulder arthroplasties per year (to reduce the risk of immediate postoperative complications); and the use of keeled or pegged all-polyethylene cemented glenoid components. The single moderate-rated recommendation was for the use of total shoulder arthroplasty rather than hemiarthroplasty. Management of glenohumeral osteoarthritis remains controversial; the scientific evidence on this topic can be significantly improved.