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  • Osteology
    • the AC joint is a diarthrodial joint
    • fibrocartilaginous intraarticular disc is located between the osseous segments  
  • Motion
    • majority of motion is from the bones, not through the joint
      • clavicle rotates 40-50° posteriorly with shoulder elevation
      • 8° of rotation through AC joint
      • remainder from scapular rotation and sternoclavicular motion
    • joint itself is limited to gliding motions only
  • Stability
    • acromioclavicular ligament
      • provides horizontal stability
      • has superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior components
        • superior ligament is strongest, followed by posterior  
    • coracoclavicular ligaments (trapezoid and conoid)
      • provides vertical stability
      • trapezoid inserts 3 cm from end of clavicle
        • stabilizer against horizontal and vertical loads
      • conoid inserts 4.5 cm from end of clavicle in the posterior border
        • more important ligament
        • vertical stabilizer of AC joint
      • normal CC distance (superior coracoid to inferior clavicle) is 11-13mm
    • deltotrapezial fascia, capsule, deltoid and trapezius
      •  act as additional stabilizers
 

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