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http://upload.orthobullets.com/topic/6067/images/TAR - xray - colorado_moved.jpg
http://upload.orthobullets.com/topic/6067/images/Case A - xray - Kosin_moved.jpg
http://upload.orthobullets.com/topic/6067/images/clinical photo - colorado_moved.jpg
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http://upload.orthobullets.com/topic/6067/images/Case A - clinical photo - Kosin_moved.jpg
http://upload.orthobullets.com/topic/6067/images/xray - colorado_moved.jpg
Introduction
  • longitudinal deficiency of the radius
    • likely related to sonic hedgehog gene
    • thumb usually deficient as well
    • bilateral in 50-72%
    • incidence is 1:100,000
  • Associated with q  
    • TAR
      • autosomal recessive condition with thrombocytopenia and absent radius
      • different in that thumb is typically present 
    • Fanconi's anemia
      • autosomal recessive condition with aplastic anemia
      • Fanconi screen and chromosomal breakage test to screen
      • treatment is bone marrow transplant
    • Holt-Oram syndrome
      • autosomal dominant condition characterized by cardiac defects
    • VACTERL Syndrome
      • vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac abnormalities, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal agenesis, and limb defects) 
    • VATER Syndrome
      • vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, renal agenesis) 

Classification
 
Bayne and Klug Classification
Type I Deficient distal radial epiphysis 
Type II Deficient distal and proximal radial epiphyses
Type III Present proximally (partial aplasia)
Type IV Completely absent (total aplasia - most common)
 
Presentation
  • Physical exam
    • deformity of hand with perpendicular relationship between forearm and wrist 
    • absent thumb
    • perform careful elbow examination
Imaging
  • Radiographs
    • entire radius and often thumb is absent 
  • Laboratory
    • must order CBC, renal ultrasound, and echocardiogram to screen for associated conditions q
Treatment
  • Nonoperative
    • passive stretching
      • target tight radial-sided structures
    • observation
      • indicated if absent elbow motion or biceps deficiency
        • hand deformity allows for extra reach to mouth in presence of a stiff elbow
  • Operative
    • hand centralization
      • indications
        • good elbow motion and biceps function intact
        • done at 6-12 months of age
        • followed by tendon transfers
      • contraindications
        • older patient with good function
        • patients with elbow extension contracture who rely on radial deviation
        • proximate terminal condition
      • technique 
        • involves resection of varying amount of carpus, shortening of ECU, and, if needed, an angular osteotomy of the ulna (be sure to spare ulnar distal physis)
        • may do as two stage procedure in combination with a distraction external fixator
        • if thumb deformity then combine with thumb reconstruction at 18 months of age
 

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