This study aimed both to evaluate rib cage parameters in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) by three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction using biplanar stereoradiography (EOS) (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) and identify factors associated with postoperative pulmonary function deterioration (PFD). A total of 67 patients with Lenke type 1 or 2 AIS (59 females and 8 males; mean age, 14.4 years) undergoing posterior corrective fusion with a rod rotation maneuver based on segmental pedicle screw fixation were recruited. 3D images and pulmonary function test results were analyzed preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively. The following parameters were measured: maximum thickness, maximum width, thoracic index, rib hump, rib cage volume (RCV), spinal penetration index (SPI), endothoracic hump ratio (EHR), vertebra-sternum angle (VSA), rib-vertebra angle difference, vertebral lateral decentering (VLD), forced vital capacity (FVC), and percent predicted FVC (%FVC). PFD was defined as a postoperative %FVC decline of 5% or greater. Patients were divided into two groups, namely PFD and non-PFD. FVC increased from 2.62 L to 2.73 L, while %FVC decreased from 88.7% to 82.7%. The maximum width diminished postoperatively in the PFD group. Patients in the PFD group exhibited a significantly smaller increase in RCV and VLD as well as a significantly smaller decrease in SPI, EHR, and VSA than those in the non-PFD group. The rib cage parameters quantified on 3D images reconstructed using EOS are useful in identifying factors affecting PFD in patients with AIS.

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