Evaluation of the bony anatomy of the glenohumeral joint is frequently required for surgical planning and subject-specific computational modeling and simulation. The three-dimensional geometry of bones is traditionally obtained by segmenting medical image datasets, but this can be time-consuming and may not be practical in the clinical setting. The aims of this study were twofold. Firstly, to develop and validate a statistical shape modeling approach to rapidly reconstruct the complete scapular and humeral geometries using discrete morphometric measurements that can be quickly and easily measured directly from CT, and secondly, to assess the effectiveness of statistical shape modeling in reconstruction of the entire humerus using just the landmarks in the immediate vicinity of the glenohumeral joint. The most representative shape prediction models presented in this study achieved complete scapular and humeral geometry prediction from seven or fewer morphometric measurements and yielded a mean surface root mean square (RMS) error under 2 mm. Reconstruction of the entire humerus was achieved using information of only proximal humerus bony landmarks and yielding mean surface RMS errors under 3 mm. The proposed statistical shape modeling facilitates rapid generation of 3D anatomical models of the shoulder, which may be useful in rapid development of personalized musculoskeletal models.



Polls results
1

On a scale of 1 to 10, rate how much this article will change your clinical practice?

NO change
BIG change
90% Article relates to my practice (10/11)
9% Article does not relate to my practice (1/11)
0% Undecided (0/11)
2

Will this article lead to more cost-effective healthcare?

18% Yes (2/11)
45% No (5/11)
36% Undecided (4/11)
3

Was this article biased? (commercial or personal)

9% Yes (1/11)
81% No (9/11)
9% Undecided (1/11)
4

What level of evidence do you think this article is?

9% Level 1 (1/11)
0% Level 2 (0/11)
36% Level 3 (4/11)
36% Level 4 (4/11)
18% Level 5 (2/11)