Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune disease that gradually affects the synovial membrane and joints. Many intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors are crucial in making RA pathology challenging throughout the disease. Substantial enzymatic or non-enzymatic modification of proteins driving inflammation has gained a lot of interest in recent years. Endogenously modified glycated protein influences disease development linked with AGEs/non-AGEs and is reported as a disease marker. In this review, we summarized current knowledge of the differential abundance of glycated proteins by compiling and analyzing a variety of AGE and non-AGE ligands that bind with RAGE to activate multi-faceted inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways that are pathobiologically associated with RA-fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS). It is critical to comprehend the connection between oxidative stress and inflammation generation, mediated by glycated protein, which may bind to the receptor RAGE, activate downstream pathways, and impart immunogenicity in RA. It is worth noting that AGEs and non-AGEs ligands play a variety of functions, and their functionality is likely to be more reliant on pathogenic states and severity that may serve as biomarkers for RA. Screening and monitoring of these differentially glycated proteins, as well as their stability in circulation, in combination with established pre-clinical characteristics, may aid or predict the onset of RA.





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