The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of closed reduction (CR) in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and to investigate risk factors associated with CR failure and avascular necrosis (AVN) occurrence in follow-ups.

The study retrospectively included 110 patients and 138 hips with DDH diagnosis that underwent closed reduction between February 2012 and November 2015 in our single tertiary medical institution. The failure rate of CR and the underlying risk factors were evaluated. Meanwhile, the incidence of AVN and the related risk factors among the successful CR cases were assessed.

The overall failure rate of DDH treated by CR in the present study was 31.16% (43/138). Risk factors for the CR failure were older age at the time of CR (≥ 18.35 month), large medical interval before CR (≥ 35.35 mm), and severer dislocation of the affected hip (IDHI grades III and IV). The incidence of AVN was 8.33% (6/72) in patients with successful CR at the last follow-up. No significant risk factors had been established in the present study that associated with the AVN occurrence.

For the treatment of DDH with CR, patients with younger age might achieve better outcomes; early diagnosis and early treatment might be the key point in the DDH treatment.