Chronic Achilles tendon ruptures typically are treated with surgical intervention except in low-demand patients or patients who are unable to tolerate surgery. Although several treatment strategies are described, most literature is case reports and case series. There is no widely accepted algorithm or gold standard for surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Treatment strategy depends on the size of the tendon gap after excision of nonviable tissue and scar tissue. Smaller gaps can be treated with direct end-to-end repair. Medium-sized gaps can be treated with tendon-lengthening procedures. Tendon transfers, autograft, allograft, xenograft, and synthetic grafting are described for the reconstruction of large defects.





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