Satellite cells (SCs) are a population of muscle-resident stem cells that are essential for efficient tissue repair. SCs reside in a relatively quiescent state during normal tissue turnover, but are activated in response to injury through the microenvironment and cell-intrinsic signals. During aging, SC dysfunction is a major contributor to the decline in regenerative potential of muscle tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors are deregulated during aging. Interventions that reverse age-associated changes in SCs or the niche have shown to partially rejuvenate the regenerative capacity of aged muscle SCs. In this review, we discuss recent advances in SC biology as it pertains to the deleterious effects of aging. A better understanding of how age-dependent changes in the SC and its environment niche impact muscle regeneration could lead to interventions to ameliorate the effects of aging in humans.





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