Radiation therapy represents a vital component in the multidisciplinary management of soft tissue sarcomas. Combined with limb-preserving surgery, radiation therapy represents a standard of care treatment option for patients with high-grade sarcomas. Radiation therapy for soft tissue sarcoma continues to evolve with changes in timing, techniques, and targets. Over the past 2 decades, increasing data have supported the role of preoperative radiotherapy with the potential for lower total doses of radiation and improved long-term function coming at the cost of increased wound complications for certain locations. Retroperitoneal sarcomas represent a location where preoperative treatment is becoming the standard of care based on anatomic constraints and challenges with delivering postoperative radiotherapy. Multiple radiation therapy techniques exist to deliver treatment; currently both 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are appropriate options, although increasing data support the role of IMRT in reducing dose to critical structures (bone, bowel, kidneys, vessels) while maintaining target coverage. Traditional target volumes have included larger fields; however, recent prospective data have demonstrated that image guidance in conjunction with smaller treatment volumes may reduce toxicity while not increasing marginal failures, although follow-up is short. Because of the toxicity associated with treatment, novel radiotherapy strategies are being used such as stereotactic radiotherapy as well as the use of tumor genetics to identify patients most likely to benefit most from radiotherapy.