AIM AND METHODS:
The goals of this study were to define the risk factors, nature, chronology, and treatment strategies adopted for periprosthetic femoral fractures in 32 644 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs).

RESULTS:
There were 564 intra-operative fractures (1.7%); 529 during uncemented stem placement (3.0%) and 35 during cemented stem placement (0.23%). Intra-operative fractures were more common in females and patients over 65 years (p < 0.001). The majority occurred during placement of the femoral component (60%), and involved the calcar (69%). There were 557 post-operative fractures (20-year probability: 3.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2 to 3.9); 335 fractures after placement of an uncemented stem (20-year probability: 7.7%; 95% CI 6.2 to 9.1) and 222 after placement of a cemented stem (20-year probability: 2.1%; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.5). The probability of a post-operative fracture within 30 days after an uncemented stem was ten times higher than a cemented stem. The most common post-operative fracture type was a Vancouver AG (32%; n = 135), with 67% occurring after a fall. In all, 36% (n = 152) were treated with revision arthroplasty.

CONCLUSION:
In summary, intra-operative fractures occur 14 times more often with uncemented stems. Female patients over 65 years of age are at highest risk. Post-operative fractures are also most common with uncemented stems, but are independent of age or gender. Cumulative risk of post-operative periprosthetic femur fracture was 3.5% at 20 years.

TAKE HOME MESSAGE:
Intra-operative fractures occur 14 times more often with uncemented stems, particularly with female patients over 65 years of age, while post-operative fracture risk is independent of age or gender, but still increased with uncemented stems.