A 70-year-old gentleman presents with left lower buttock pain 5 years after prior spine surgery as seen in Figure A. He subsequently underwent a left total hip replacement 1 year ago that relieved all of his groin pain but left lower buttock pain persists. He reports improved symptoms when he wears a tight belt. On examination, he has a negative straight leg raise, a positive FABER test, and a positive Fortin's finger test. He has an injection into the affected area with a >75% relief of symptoms. Which of the following risk factors may have predisposed him to this condition?