Physical therapy constitutes an essential determinant of clinical outcome after total shoulder arthroplasty. We reviewed our results in 81 shoulders at a minimum of 2 years' follow-up, with specific focus on the maintenance of motion and the development of soft tissue healing problems. Our findings show that our graduated rehabilitation program allows most patients to obtain motion comparable to that possible intraoperatively with few complications. Of patients, 70% maintained their elevation, and 90% maintained external rotation. Patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic arthritis, and osteonecrosis were identified as being at risk for failure to regain motion and for tendon healing complications.