Current indications for shoulder arthrodesis include posttraumatic brachial plexus injuries, paralysis of the deltoid muscle and rotator cuff, chronic infection, failed revision arthroplasty, severe refractory instability, and bone deficiency following resection of a tumor in the proximal aspect of the humerus. The trapezius, levator scapulae, serratus anterior, and rhomboid muscles must be functional to optimize the functional result following shoulder arthrodesis. A consensus has not been reached concerning the ideal position of the shoulder arthrodesis, although excessive abduction or flexion has been associated with chronic postoperative pain. Decortication of both the acromiohumeral and the glenohumeral surfaces to increase the surface area available for arthrodesis is the most common means for obtaining successful fusion. Although there are numerous methods for stabilization of a shoulder arthrodesis, the most popular method today is probably the AO technique with either a single plate or double plates.

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