Ipsilateral fractures of the humerus and forearm are uncommon injuries in children. The incidence of compartment syndrome in association with these fractures is controversial. The authors reviewed 978 consecutive children admitted to the hospital with upper extremity long bone fractures during a 13-year period. Forty-three children with ipsilateral fractures of the humerus and forearm were identified. Of 33 children with a supracondylar humerus fracture and ipsilateral forearm fracture, three children (7%) had compartment syndrome develop and required forearm fasciotomies. All three cases of compartment syndrome occurred among nine children with ipsilateral displaced extension supracondylar humerus and displaced forearm fractures; the incidence of compartment syndrome was 33% in this group. These findings suggest that children who sustain a displaced extension supracondylar humerus fracture and displaced forearm fracture are at significant risk for compartment syndrome. These children should be monitored closely during the perioperative period for signs and symptoms of increasing intracompartmental pressures in the forearm.

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