The death receptors Fas and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) trigger apoptosis upon engagement by their cognate death ligands. Recently, researchers have discovered several novel homologues of Fas and TNFR1: DR 3, 4, 5, and 6 function as death receptors that signal apoptosis, whereas DcR 1, 2, and 3 act as decoys that compete with specific death receptors for ligand binding. Further, mouse gene knockout studies have enabled researchers to delineate some of the signaling pathways that connect death receptors to the cell's apoptotic machinery.





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