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Which of following is pathognomonic of intervertebral disk degeneration?
Increased water content in the nucleus pulposus
Loss of Type X collagen in the nucleus pulposus
Decreased thickness of the inner annulus fibers
Degradation of large proteoglycans molecules in the nucleus pulposus
Annular tears and fissuring occurring most frequently in the central disc
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A 37-year-old male feels a "pop" in his low back while lifting a heavy object. Four weeks later he continues to have significant low back pain, with no complaints of symptoms in his leg. A T2-weighted MRI is shown in Figure A with a red arrow identifying abnormal signal intensity in an anatomic structure. What type of collagen is primarily responsible for the biological properties of this anatomic structure?
Which of the following are progressive changes seen with aging of the intervertebral disc?
Increase in water content
Increase in large aggregated proteoglycans
An increased keratan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate ratio
A decrease in degradative enzyme activity
An increase in nutritional transport
Which of the following statements is true with regard to the aging process of the intervertebral disc along the endplate?
Water content increases with age
Proteoglycans increase with age
Degradative enzyme activity decreases with age
pH increase with age
There is a conversion to fibrocartilage
Recent studies have shown that cells of the intervertebral discs are biologically responsive and increase their production of matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and prostaglandin E2 when stimulated by what molecule
transforming growth factor-beta
receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Which of the following processes is involved in age-related intervertebral disc degeneration?
increased cell number in the nucleus pulposus
increased matrix synthesis
increased disc height
increased degradative enzyme activity
increased chondrotin sulfate
Which of the following is true regarding changes in the vascularity of the adult intervertebral disc with age?
Neovascularization occurs from the nucleus pulposus
Neovascularization occurs from the outer annulus
Neovascularization occurs from the endplates
There is no change in vascularity
There is a decrease in vascularity