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Recent studies have shown that cells of the intervertebral discs are biologically responsive and increase their production of matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and prostaglandin E2 when stimulated by what molecule
transforming growth factor-beta
receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
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A 37-year-old male feels a "pop" in his low back while lifting a heavy object. Four weeks later he continues to have significant low back pain, with no complaints of symptoms in his leg. A T2-weighted MRI is shown in Figure A with a red arrow identifying abnormal signal intensity in an anatomic structure. What type of collagen is primarily responsible for the biological properties of this anatomic structure?
Which of the following are progressive changes seen with aging of the intervertebral disc?
Increase in water content
Increase in large aggregated proteoglycans
An increased keratan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate ratio
A decrease in degradative enzyme activity
An increase in nutritional transport
Which of the following statements is true with regard to the aging process of the intervertebral disc along the endplate?
Water content increases with age
Proteoglycans increase with age
Degradative enzyme activity decreases with age
pH increase with age
There is a conversion to fibrocartilage
Which of the following processes is involved in age-related intervertebral disc degeneration?
increased cell number in the nucleus pulposus
increased matrix synthesis
increased disc height
increased degradative enzyme activity
increased chondrotin sulfate