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A posterior leaf spring ankle-foot orthosis would be appropriate for which foot and ankle malalignment pattern in a child with spastic-type cerebral palsy?
Absent heel strike, excessive plantar flexion in the swing phase, and 5 degrees of passive ankle dorsiflexion
Excessive ankle dorsiflexion in midstance caused by incompetence of the ankle plantar flexors
Crouch gait pattern with excessive ankle dorsiflexion, increased knee flexion, and increased hip flexion in midstance
Excessive supination of the hindfoot during stance, which is passively correctable
Significant knee instability and weakness with stance in a child who is minimally ambulatory
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A 7-year-old boy with spastic diplegia is a limited community ambulator. He has a moderately severe crouched gait. The parents request a treatment that will result in a permanent decrease in lower extremity muscle tone. This is best accomplished with
tone-reduction ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs).
intramuscular injections of botulinum-A toxin.
an intrathecal baclofen injection.
selective posterior rhizotomy.
fractional tendon lengthening of bilateral hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles.
A 22-month-old girl has cerebral palsy. Which of the following findings is a good prognostic indicator of the child’s ability to walk in the future?
Asymmetric tonic neck reflex
Positive parachute reaction
Absent foot placement