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A 12-year-old boy presents to the clinic with complaints of right sided anterior knee pain and an outtoeing gait that has worsened over the past few years. Examination reveals an external foot-progression angle of 25 degrees, a thigh-foot axis of +30 degrees, and a positive apprehension test for lateral patellar subluxation on the right side. There is also noted symmetrical hip rotation on exam. What is the most likely cause of this patient's outtoeing and knee pain?
Bilateral developmentally dislocated hips
Excessive external tibial torsion
Excessive femoral anteversion
External rotation contracture of the hips
Excessive internal tibial torsion
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This video demonstrates how to measure the thigh-foot axis. It is an effective w...