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What is the most common primary malignant bone or cartilage tumor in children?
Giant cell tumor
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A 13-year-old girl is referred for a painful progressive valgus deformity of the right knee. Examination reveals an antalgic gait with an obvious valgus deformity. The right distal femur has a palpable, tender mass with erythema and warmth. Figures 4a and 4b show a clinical photograph and a radiograph. Management should consist of
needle biopsy of the distal femur.
open reduction and internal fixation with a locking plate.
closed reduction and fixation with a reamed antegrade locking intramedullary nail.
referral to an orthopaedic oncologist for staging studies, biopsy, and definitive management.
IV antibiotics for 6 weeks.