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Which of the following structures attaches between the medial epicondyle and adductor tubercle of the femur?
Medial head of gastrocnemius
Medial collateral ligament
Medial patellofemoral ligament
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Which of the following best describes the radiographic landmarks on a lateral radiograph for locating the femoral attachment of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) during reconstruction?
The intersection of a line extended from the middle of the shaft and Blumensaat's line
Anterior to a line extended from the middle of the shaft and Blumensaat's line
Posterior to a line extended from the posterior cortex of the shaft and distal to Blumensaat's line
Anterior to a line extended from the posterior cortex of the shaft and distal to Blumensaat's line
Anterior to a line extended from the posterior cortex of the shaft and proximal to Blumensaat's line
A 27-year-old football player sustains an acute lateral patellar dislocation. Which of the following is the most likely site of injury seen on MRI?
Midsubstance oblique retinacular ligament rupture
Soft-tissue avulsion of medial patellofemoral ligament
Midsubstance medial patellofemoral ligament rupture
Partial quadriceps tendon rupture
Bony avulsion of medial patellofemoral ligament
Figure 49 shows an acute axial MRI scan of a right knee. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Patellar tendon rupture
Lateral dislocation of the patella
Quadriceps tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament rupture
Posterior cruciate ligament rupture
A high school softball player has chronic activity-related anterior knee pain without a history of instability. Which radiographic measurement is used to indicate when a lateral retinacular release may be helpful?
Lateral patello-femoral angle
Patellar height index
You see a patient in the emergency room with an acute lateral patellar dislocation. Which of the following factors is associated with the highest risk of persistent patellar instability?
Previous patellar instability event
Amount of lateral patellar tilt
An athlete sustains a traumatic patellar dislocation. The MRI shows a hemarthrosis with a floating osteochondral fragment. Which of the following is the most likely site of origin for the loose fragment?
The lateral patellar facet
The medial patellar facet
The odd patellar facet
The medial trochlea
The central trochlea
All of the following are predisposing factors for lateral patellar dislocation in a native knee EXCEPT?
Excess femoral internal rotation
Excess external tibial rotation
Lateral femoral condylar hypoplasia
Insufficiency of the vastus lateralis