Spondylolysis is common among young athletes and should be suspected in any young athlete presenting with low back pain that persists for more than a few weeks. Diagnostic evaluation typically includes plain radiographs followed by more sensitive modalities, including single-photon emission CT, CT, or MRI. There is no consensus on the most appropriate protocol for diagnostic evaluation. Treatment usually consists of rest and/or bracing to allow healing to occur, followed by rehabilitation that includes core strengthening. More large-scale controlled studies need to be done in order to clarify the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic protocols.