A radial nerve injury associated with a humeral shaft fracture is an important injury pattern among trauma patients. It is the most common peripheral nerve injury associated with this fracture. Although treatment for this injury pattern is a controversial subject among upper-extremity surgeons, certain principles of management need to be applied in all cases. As our understanding of the pathoanatomy of the humerus and surrounding neurovascular structures has evolved, surgeons have adapted their strategies to improve outcome and avoid long-term morbidity. The principles of management and the clinical outcomes of various treatment strategies, defined in the literature, are reviewed in this article.