The angle and position of the scapular glenoid are important in shoulder mechanics, the interpretation of diseases, and planning shoulder replacement surgery. In total shoulder replacement, understanding the bony parameters of the glenoid is also of considerable guiding significance for designing implant size and improving material adaptability. To compare glenoid parameters measured from skeletal scapula specimens with those measured by 3D modeling of CT scanning images, analyze correlations between these data, and draw conclusions to guide clinical treatment of shoulder joint injury and total shoulder joint replacement. The data of manual and CT measurements from the same Chinese dry glenoid was compared. Three-dimensional measurement data were collected from the Japanese population and compared with the Chinese population data generated in this study. There were no significant differences between manual measurement and CT measurement in the inclination angle, glenopolar angle, anteroposterior transverse diameter, upper to lower vertical diameter, and depth of the glenoid (P = 0.288, 0.524, 0.111, 0.194, and 0.055, respectively). Further, there were no significant differences between Japanese and Chinese glenoid bones in the upper and lower vertical diameters or anteroposterior transverse diameters (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between CT and manual measurements, suggesting that the CT method may provide measurements very close to the actual specimen size. This result, however, indicated that the measurer should be careful when measuring the depth of the glenoid.